Essay on causes and effects of child abuse

It breaks out workers who are part-time because they could only find part-time work. Everyday use alice walker analysis : Persons unemployed 15 weeks or longer, as a percent of the civilian labor force. U-2 : Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs, as a percent of the civilian labor force. Total unemployed, as a percentage of the civilian labor force. Total unemployed plus discouraged workers, as a percentage of the civilian labor force plus discouraged workers.

Total unemployed, plus discouraged workers, plus all other persons marginally attached to the labor force, as a percentage of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force. Total unemployed, plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force, plus total employed part-time for economic reasons, as a percentage of the civilian labor force plus all persons marginally attached to the labor force.

Underemployment has a more adverse effect on those with college or post-graduate degrees. A Gallup poll asked the underemployed, which included unemployed respondents in the survey, to rate whether they felt they were thriving or not. There was a point discrepancy. But this was only 10 points lower than their employed colleagues. Underemployment has a greater effect on life satisfaction for the educated than the less educated.

Recessions Economic Sectors Natural Disasters. GDP and Growth Recessions. By Kimberly Amadeo. The BLS reports other, broader definitions of underemployment. With no change in aggregate demand, this causes price level to rise to OP 2 and output to fall to OY 2. With the reduction in output, employment in the economy declines or unemployment rises. Thus, CPI may arise even below the full employment Y f stage. It is the cost factors that pull the prices upward. One of the important causes of price rise is the rise in price of raw materials.

For instance, essay on causes and effects of poverty in pakistan an administrative order the government may hike the price of petrol or diesel or freight rate. Firms buy these inputs now at a higher price.

This leads to an upward pressure on cost of production. Not only this, CPI is often imported from outside the economy. Increase in the price of petrol by OPEC compels the government to increase the price of petrol and diesel.

These two important raw materials are needed by every sector, especially the transport sector. As a result, transport costs go up resulting in higher general price level.

Again, CPI may be induced by wage-push inflation or profit-push inflation. Trade unions demand higher money wages as a compensation against inflationary price rise. If increase in money wages exceeds labour productivity, aggregate supply will shift upward and leftward. Firms often exercise power by pushing up prices independently of consumer demand to expand their profit margins. Fiscal policy changes, such as an increase in tax rates leads to an upward pressure in cost of production.

For instance, an overall increase in excise tax of mass consumption goods is definitely inflationary. That is why government is then accused of causing inflation. Finally, production setbacks may result in decreases in output. Natural disaster, exhaustion of natural resources, work stoppages, electric power cuts, etc.

Strategies for Disaster Risk Management

In the midst of this output reduction, artificial scarcity of any goods by traders and hoarders just simply ignite the situation. Inefficiency, corruption, mismanagement of the economy may also be the other reasons. Thus, inflation is caused by the interplay of various factors. A particular factor cannot be held responsible for inflationary price rise. When they act as buyers they want prices of goods and services to remain stable but as sellers they expect the prices of goods and services should go up.

The old people are in the habit of recalling the days when the price of say, meat per kilogram cost just 10 rupees. Today it is Rs. This is true for all other commodities. When they enjoyed a better living standard. Imagine today, how worse we are! This goes unusually untold. When price level goes up, there is both a gainer and a loser.

To evaluate the consequence of inflation, one must identify the nature of inflation which may be anticipated and unanticipated. If inflation is anticipated, people can adjust with the new situation and costs of inflation to the society will be smaller. In reality, people cannot predict accurately future events or people often make mistakes in predicting the course of inflation. In other words, inflation may be unanticipated when people fail to adjust completely. This creates various problems.

During inflation, usually people experience rise in incomes. But some people gain during inflation at the expense of others. Some individuals gain because their money incomes rise more rapidly than the prices and some lose because prices rise more rapidly than their incomes during inflation. Thus, it redistributes income and wealth. Though no conclusive evidence can be cited, it can be asserted that following categories of people are affected by inflation differently:.

Borrowers gain and lenders lose during inflation because debts are fixed in rupee terms. When debts are repaid their real value declines by the price level increase and, hence, creditors lose.

Essay on causes and effects of poverty in pakistan

An individual may be interested in buying a house by taking a loan of Rs. The borrower now welcomes inflation since he will have to pay less in real terms than when it was borrowed. Lender, in the process, loses since the rate of interest payable remains unaltered as per agreement.

Dissertation using manova, if in an inflation-ridden economy creditors chronically loose, it is wise not to advance loans or to shut down business.

Never does it happen. Rather, the loan- giving institution makes adequate safeguard against the erosion of real value. These people suffer a reduction in real income when prices rise. Similarly, beneficiaries from life insurance programmes are also hit badly by inflation since real value of savings deteriorate. People who put their money in shares during inflation are expected to gain since the possibility of earning business profit brightens. Higher profit induces owners of firms to distribute profit among investors or shareholders.

Anyone earning a fixed income is damaged by inflation. Sometimes, unionized worker succeeds in raising wage rates of white-collar workers as a compensation against price rise. But wage rate changes with a long time lag. In other words, wage rate increases always lag behind price increases. Naturally, inflation results in a reduction in real purchasing power of fixed income earners. On the other hand, people earning flexible incomes may gain during inflation. The nominal incomes of such people outstrip the general price rise.

As a result, real incomes of this income group increase. It is argued that profit-earners gain from inflation. Profit tends to rise during inflation.

Seeing inflation, businessmen raise the prices of their products. This results in a bigger profit. Profit margin, however, may not be high when the rate of inflation climbs to a high level. However, speculators dealing in business in essential commodities usually stand to gain by inflation. Black marketeers are also benefited by inflation. Thus, there occurs a redistribution of income and wealth. It is said that rich becomes richer and poor becomes poorer during inflation.

However, no such hard and fast generalizations can be made. It is clear that someone wins and someone loses from inflation. These effects of inflation may persist if inflation is unanticipated.

However, the redistributive burdens of inflation on income and wealth are most likely to be minimal if inflation is anticipated by the people. With anticipated inflation, people can build up their strategies to cope with inflation.

If the annual rate of inflation in an economy essay on causes and effects of child abuse anticipated correctly people will try to protect them against losses resulting from inflation. Workers will demand 10 p. Similarly, a percentage of inflation premium will be demanded by creditors from debtors. Business firms will also fix prices of their products in accordance with the anticipated price rise.

However, it is difficult to anticipate properly every episode of inflation. Further, even if it is anticipated it cannot be perfect. In addition, adjustment with the new expected inflationary conditions may not be possible for all categories of people. Thus, adverse redistributive effects are likely to occur. A cause of gilded age essay for 'how is a cause low job quality content.

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Thomas sowell on causes of articles include the community has never recovered from a essay life an average ocean depth of m is assumed, one talks of tsunamis as having an average speed of about km per hour.

The long gravity tsunami waves are caused by two interacting processes. There is the slope of the sea surface which creates a horizontal pressure force. Then there is the piling up or lowering of sea surface as water moves in varying speeds in the direction that the wave form is moving.

These processes together create propagating waves. A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. An undersea earthquake causes buckling of the sea floor, something that occurs at subduction zones, places where drifting plates that constitute the outer shell of the earth converge and the heavier oceanic plate dips below the lighter continents.

As a plate plunges into the interior of the earth it gets stuck against the edge of a continental plate for a while, when stresses build up, then the locked zone gives way. Parts of the ocean floor then snap upward and other areas sink downward. In the instant after the quake, the sea surface shape resembles the contours of the seafloor.

But then gravity acts to return the sea surface to its original shape. The ripples then race outward and a tsunami is caused.

There were 17 tsunamis in the Pacific from to which resulted in 1, deaths. During a submarine landslide, the equilibrium sea-level is altered by sediment moving along the floor of the sea. Gravitational forces then propagate a tsunami. Again, a marine volcanic eruption can generate an impulsive force that displaces the water column and gives birth to a tsunami.

Above water landslides and objects in space are capable of essay on causes and effects of child abuse the water when the falling debris, like meteorites, displace the water from its equilibrium position. As a tsunami leaves deep waters and propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. This is because as the depth of the water decreases, the speed of the tsunami reduces. But the change of total energy of the tsunami remains constant.

With decrease in speed, height of the tsunami wave grows. Tsunami attacks can come in different forms depending upon the geometry of the seafloor warping that first caused the waves. Sometimes, the sea seems to at first draw a breath but then this withdrawal is followed by arrival of the crest of a tsunami wave. Write my admission essay have been known to occur suddenly without warning.

Waves can be large and violent in one coastal area while another is not affected. Areas can be flooded inland to metres or more; when tsunami waves retreat, they carry things and people out to sea. Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level of 30 metres. The size of the tsunami waves is determined by the quantum of deformation of the sea floor. Greater the vertical displacement, greater will be the wave size. For tsunamis to occur, earthquakes must happen underneath or near the ocean.

They must be large and create movements in the ocean floor.

Essay on Natural Disasters? Its Types, Causes with Images

Subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indonesia have created killer tsunamis. The Pacific among the oceans has witnessed most number of tsunamis over since One of the deadliest tsunamis occurred in Asia on December 26, It was triggered by the most powerful earthquake recorded in the past four decades-one whose magnitude was 8. A tsunami with a magnitude 9. Tsunamis and earthquakes can cause changes in geography. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands may have moved by about 1.

The warning of an oncoming tsunami cannot be obtained by merely detecting an earthquake in the seas; it involves a number of complex steps which have to be completed in a systematic and quick fashion. It was inthat the international warning system was started. Computer systems at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre PTWC in Hawaii monitor data from seismic stations in the USA and elsewhere warning is issued when an earthquake is shallow, located under the sea or close to it and has a magnitude that is more than a pre-determined threshold.

Each gauge has a very sensitive pressure recorder on the sea floor in which can detect the change in the height of the ocean it even if it is by just one cm. The data is transmitted acoustically to a surface buoy which then relays it over satellite to the warning centre.

There are seven DART gauges deployed at present and four more are being planned. PTWC has improved its performance rapidly as high-quality seismic data has been made available to it. The time it needed to issue a warning has fallen from up to 90 minutes some six years ago to 25 minutes or even less today. The Indian Ocean is not prone to tsunamis. Only two have essay on causes and effects of poverty in pakistan in this ocean including one on December 26, India has been a leader in the initiative to develop a reliable tsunami warning system for the ocean.

It has decided to set up a sophisticated system for detecting deep sea movements and develop a network with the countries in the Indian Ocean region for sharing information on tsunamis. It will have pressure sensors to detect the water movement.

The sensors will be linked to the satellite that will relay information to the earth station. Some more sensors would be installed later and the data buoys would be linked to the system that would record changes in the water level. The Indian government plans to set up a network with Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand which would calculate the magnitude and intensity of tsunamis from the data available to it.

DART-type gauges will be installed by the government and it will join 26 countries in a network that warn each other about tsunamis. A state-of-the-art National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, which has the capability to detect earthquakes of more than 6 magnitude in the Indian Ocean was inaugurated in in India. The system comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, bottom pressure recorders BPRsand 30 tide gauges to detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and monitor tsunamis. Many regions in India are highly vulnerable to natural and other disasters on account of geological conditions.

Disaster management has therefore emerged as a high priority. Going beyond the historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the catastrophe, there is a need to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation.

So, the development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness as well as mitigation to ensure that periodic shocks to development efforts are minimised. About 60 per cent of the landmass in India is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8 per cent is prone to floods. Of the nearly 7, km long coastline, more than 5, km is prone to cyclones. Around 68 per cent area is also susceptible to drought.

All this entails huge economic losses and causes developmental setbacks. The Tenth Five Year Plan recognised disaster management as a development issue for the first time. It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone and the massive Gujarat earthquake Later the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Andaman in became the tipping point for initiating a series of steps by the government.

Essay on causes and effects of poverty in pakistan became one of the first countries to declare a national commitment to set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for more effective disaster management at the national, state and district levels. The Plan devoted a separate article to disaster management and made a number of important prescriptions to mainstream disaster risk reduction into the process of development.

The prescriptions were broadly divided into three categories:. Policy guidelines at macro level to inform and guide the preparation and implementation of development plans-across sectors.

Scientists estimate that the likelihood of death for a living human from a worldwide impact event is like the probability of dying from an airliner crash. A flare may be a phenomenon where the Sun suddenly releases an extraordinary amount of radiation, far more than usual. Solar flares can destroy electrical equipment rather than causing direct injury. The potential of solar storms to create disaster was seen during community service 5 paragraph essay Carrington event, which disrupted the telegraph network and, therefore, the March geomagnetic storm, which blacked out Quebec.

Floods - Causes and Effects of Flooding - Flood Protection

Some major known solar flares include the X20 event on August 16,and an identical flare on April 2, Natural disasters also can affect political relations with countries, and the other way around Violent conflicts within states can exacerbate the impact of natural disasters by weakening the power of states, communities, and individuals to supply disaster relief. Natural disasters also can worsen ongoing conflicts within states by reducing the capacity of states to fight rebels.

In developed countries, just like the US, studies find that incumbents lose votes when the electorate perceives them as liable for inadequate disaster response.

Disasters and responses can dictate political careers, the once-popular President Benigno Aquino III of the Philippines, following a weak and confused response to Typhoon Yolanda. It killed over 6, people, and survivors were left mainly to defend themselves. This widely accepted sentiment was carried over. Therefore, the President never recovered his popularity; his handpicked successor Mar Roxas lost the next election to a rival party during a landslide vote.

Post-disaster mishandling can spread despair as bad news travels fast and much, and contribute to the appeal of electing a strongman out of sheer desperation. Contents 1 What are Natural Disasters? Such disasters affect both local population and may even cover a much larger area. Industrial disasters result due to accidental leakage of water or air pollutants. Many of the chemicals are extremely toxic and carcinogenic which affect the human population in an adverse way.

Some people die instantly while others are crippled for whole life in the form of blindness, paralysis and many other essay on causes and effects of child abuse diseases. Leakage of toxic chemicals from the industries and accidents in the nuclear reactors has short-term and long-term effects on the environment and human health. Short-term effects on human health relate to casualties and diseases like blindness, english essay topics for class 6, paralysis, heart trouble, gastric and respiratory abnormalities.

Long-term effects include genetic imbalances in humans and its impact on the future generations. Soil and water sources also remain polluted for long durations of time. Man-made disasters can be minimized to a large extent by adopting the following measures:. Applying wet cloth over the mouth and nose in case of gas leakages minimizes the health hazards. MIC gas is used as an ingredient in pesticides.

It leaked from the factory and formed the deadly cloud over Bhopal. People living in slums in the vicinity of the factory were the most affected and more than people were killed, half of them due to direct exposure and other half due to after affects.

MIC is a colourless gas which causes severe irritation, violent coughing, swelling of the lungs, bleeding and death due to direct inhalation. It also caused loss of eye-sight in more than people. More than 50, people were affected with respiratory, eye, gastric, neurological and gynaecological problems Figs.

Another technological disaster is due to the potential damages of nuclear fallout. An example is the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster. It is the worst nuclear disaster recorded in a nuclear power plant. This nuclear power plant had four reactors of megawatt each for electricity generation. A sudden power surge resulted in two explosions, which destroyed the reactor core and blasted a large hole in the roof of the reactor building. The Radioactive debris moved up through that hole to heights of 1 km.

Approximately to million curies of radiation radioactive isotopes of iodine and caesium escaped into the atmosphere.

Essay on causes and effects of child abuse

To reduce emissions, the rescue team bombarded the reactor with 5, metric tonnes of shielding material consisting of lead, boron, sand and clay.

Soviet officials placed the toll of human lives to However, according to western estimates, people were killed. Aroundpeople had to be evacuated and resettled. The after affects lasted for many years and a rise in the incidence of thyroid and blood cancer has been observed in a wide group of people. Other affects on the human health included skin diseases, hair loss, nausea, anemia, respiratory and reproductive diseases.

Top Menu BiologyDiscussion. Top 6 Ecological Role of Biodiversity. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Answer Now and help others. Answer Now. Here's how it works: Anybody can ask a question Anybody can answer The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.

Inthe government reacted early, and was in a better economic position to react to the crisis.

Essay on causes and effects of natural disasters

When crop failure hit Zimbabwe inits economy was declining at one of the fastest rates around the globe and poverty was wide-spread. Also, over a third of population had AIDS, unlike inmaking them a lot more vulnerable as their bodies were weak before the food shortage.

This clearly shows that being prepared for disasters can help us avoid turning risks into crisis. Chivi district, Zimbabwe, www. When thinking about the impact of disasters in the world, one of the most important things to remember is that a higher rate of Natural Hazards does not equal a higher risk from Disasters. Unequal development has dramatic effects on our ability to resist natural hazards, turning them into disasters with catastrophic consequences. For example, the fact that some countries are affected by extreme poverty or war makes it very difficult for their population to respond to natural hazards.

Sometimes hazards which would otherwise be quite minor such as a common drop in rainfall can turn into a full-fledged famine when combined with poverty or war, preventing food to be transported to a region or bought by the people living there.

In places where people have the money, resources and knowledge to prepare themselves well they are able to resist serious hazards.

In in California an earthquake which measured 7. The year before in Armenia a slightly weaker earthquake 6. The huge difference in the number of people hurt by the two earthquakes is because houses in California are usually designed to resist earthquakes. Although major roads were destroyed, fewer people than normal were out driving, because many people were watching an important baseball game in the area, explaining why so few people died.

Most of the houses in Armenia were made from heavy concrete, which collapses easily. In the city of Leninakan, only 14 buildings were not damaged. These buildings were the only ones in the city which had essay on causes and effects of natural disasters designed to withstand earthquakes.

Disasters in History What happened and when:. He wrote two letters detailing the eruption of Mt. Volcanic eruptions are not the only natural disasters that ruin societies. The San Francisco earthquake shook the Bay Area to its core. A slip in the fault caused an earthquake with a 7. Many surrounding areas like Oakland, Santa Cruz, and Santa Clara also suffered large amounts of damage. The Cypress Street Viaduct located along the Nimitz Freeway was the cause of the majority of fatalities.

Many buildings in Santa Cruz did not hold up to the strength of the earthquake due to the fact that they were built on loose, my village essay in marathi soil.

These buildings were in the neighborhood of fifty to one hundred years old. This gave the earthquake much more exposure and viewers witnessed good amounts of footage due to the fact that the Goodyear blimp was in the sky. This earthquake totaled upwards of deaths.

 

 


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